The coconut is the fruit of the coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) which is a species of palm tree belonging to the Arecaceae family. The coconut is an important and essential element in the gastronomy of many countries in the tropical areas of the world. The coconut tree a very tall tree that can reach up to 30 meters high. It has three or more large, pinnate leaves that can reach a length of six meters. It flowers throughout the year in axillary inflorescences containing male and female flowers with 6 stamens. The coconut tree does not tolerate cold or high altitudes, it can not grow on hard soils with scarce salt, it needs to be in humid climates and strong winds to be able to pollinate its flowers. It is a single species but it has a large number of varieties that are differentiated by the stem and which are found in several areas of the Earth Globe.
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How are the seeds of the plant?
The coconut belongs to the group of the fruit of the drupes, that is, it is a very large nut, it has Epicarp protected by the skin or skin, the edible and soft Mesocarp and the Endocarp, sclerified or woody, the seed is inside the pit. The coconut is the seed, the liquid is the equivalent to the seminal leaves that have beans (cotyledons) by removing the thin shell. At a point at the apex of the solid white substance that the seedling eats, from where the leaves and the root come out, the coconut is surrounded by a fibrous matter and all this together is the fruit.
How to plant the seeds and make them germinate?
The coconut tree requires a warm climate, the ideal temperature is 27 ° C with variations of 5 to 7 ° C, the coconut crop needs moisture and sunlight. The suitable soils are those of light texture, either loamy or sandy, with more than one meter of depth, like those of the coastal plains, they can also be planted in clay soils provided that the humidity caused by irrigation is managed. The coconut tree adapts very well to saline soils since the plant needs a lot of chlorine, which is why they can grow on beaches or nearby places.
The coconut tree should be watered frequently, as long as the soil is capable of draining well. When replanting a coconut tree, sand or vermiculite must be added so that the new soil can drain the water well.
To plant a coconut (seed) you must choose a fresh one that contains water inside, immerse it in water for at least two or three days, then place it in a pot or a container with good drainage that has soil for pots. Soil should be mixed with sand or vermiculite to ensure that the soil used in the cultivation of the trees can drain well, the ideal size of the container should be at least twelve inches to promote proper growth of the roots. The most pointed part of the coconut should be planted down and leave a third of it above the ground. Once the coconut is planted, the container should be placed in a bright, warm place, while warmer is better. For better germination, pour hot water on the coconut shell every day, making sure it does not dry out, the germination process is slow, it may take three to six months until the bud appears. The bud appears through one of the weak points, called eyes, then it crosses the hard inner shell of the coconut and finally it leaves the great fibrous outer layer and it shows the first leaves of the seedling. Once the white roots begin to grow out, the coconut can be planted elsewhere.
To keep the coconut tree healthy once it begins to grow it is necessary to apply a complete fertilizer on a regular basis, in addition to placing boron, manganese and magnesium
The types of coconut trees are classified according to their height in giants, dwarfs and hybrids and within each group there are many varieties, some are grown for their high oil content and others for their sugar content, some farmers prefer dwarf varieties due to that they are less vulnerable to a disease that kills many of the tall trees, in counterpart this variety of dwarf coconut trees is attacked by rodents who destroy large crops worldwide. The coconut has a large number of uses, for example inside we find coconut milk that is anthelmintic and diuretic, coconut butter is used to repair the skin, coconut meat is slightly laxative and a pectoral syrup is made with it , coconut water acts as a refreshing, laxative, anthelmintic and diuretic, coconut butter as emollient, that is to say eliminates inflammations, coconut milk also have the property of killing intestinal parasites. Additionally, the coconut palm is the most cultivated and important palm in the world since it is currently the main producer of vegetable fat. It is one of the plants that provides a great diversity of products since it is the primary source of food, drink and shelter, it is distributed in most of the islands and the tropical coasts and in some places outside the tropical zone, being cultivated mainly in Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Central America and Tropical Africa